Cancer of the urethra is a disease, that can be called exotic. Occurs in men and women is about 1% of all tumors occurring in the urinary tract. More often in postmenopausal women and keeps the figure to 0.5 % from all the diverse cases of cancer of the genital organs.
Urethra is arranged, of course, different in men and women. Cancer of the urethra in women is usually sits outside or in the channel, men - in bulbar-membranous division. Insidious disease, is not widely studied, it is found often in the later stages. So regular inspection you can't avoid if you don't want to miss cancer.
Cancer of the urethra treated in two ways - radically (surgery) and radiation therapy. Doclandmed.com recommends only those doctors and technology, which are recognized as best in the world.
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Causes cancer of the urethra
the Exact cause of the launch mechanism of oncological diseases is unknown, cancer of the urethra is not an exception. Factors significantly increasing the risk of cancer of the urethra is an inflammatory and infectious diseases. Practice shows that many patients with cancer of the urethra, have had treatment for urethritis. Women who have had chronic infections of urogenital or suffering from diverticula of the bladder also contribute to the risk. The human papilloma virus can be considered as a factor that increases the risk of cancer of the urethra.
Symptoms of cancer of the urethra
There are many options symptoms of this disease. In men, cancer of the urethra appears difficulty urinating (in severe cases there may be complete retention of urine). The urethra is palpated characteristic seal. Have the septic and (or) blood discharge from the urethra. In later cases, the patient suffers from pain in the perineum and urethra. Enlarged lymph nodes, scrotum and penis swollen. Known cases of malignant priapism (painful prolonged erection not associated with sexual arousal). For melanoma of the urethra characterized by pigmentation of the glans penis.
For women, characterized by pain, itching and burning in the region of the urethra, blood discharge from the urethra. Disturbed urination (urinary incontinence appears), sometimes on the mucous membrane of the vulva sores appear. If the tumor goes to the vaginal walls, pain in lower abdomen, bleeding from the vagina. A symptom of the tumor in the bladder is the presence of blood in the urine (gross hematuria). If the tumor is located at the exterior opening of the urethra, - it is possible to determine not only by means of palpation, but also visually. The consequence of thrombosis of lymphatic vessels is lymphedema. Its manifestation is edema lower half of the body.
the Penetration of metastases in parenchymatous organs is accompanied by characteristic symptoms.
Diagnosis of cancer of the urethra
the Detection of cancer of the urethra in the early stages – the key to successful treatment.
Diagnosis of cancer of the urethra starts from a careful study of the complaints of the patient and a thorough inspection. The doctor finds out the patient has inflammatory urogenital diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, diverticula of the bladder. For an accurate diagnosis use the following procedure:
• a urine test. Assigned to determine characteristics such as color, acidity, degree of transparency. An analysis is made to identify the protein in the urine. Urine will be checked for the presence of blood, white blood cells and sugar.
• Cytological (cellular) examination. Such a diagnostic method allows to detect in urine the presence of foreign cells.
• a Rectal examination of the rectum.
• For women – a detailed gynecological examination.
• Cystoscopy – inspection of the urethra and bladder using a cystoscope. Usually during cystoscopy produce taking tissue samples for biopsy. For carrying out cystoscopy using local anesthesia. The study is conducted on an outpatient basis.
• a Biopsy – a method that allows you to definitively diagnose cancer of the urethra. In addition, a laboratory study samples of tumor tissues allows us to determine the kind of tumor.
• Magnetic resonance (MRI) – it can help to determine what stage the disease is.
• computed tomography of the pelvis and abdominal cavity
Classification of urethral cancer
depending on the type of cancer cells there are: squamous cell, transitional cell cancer and adenocarcinoma.
Treatment of cancer of the urethra
Development of methods of treatment must take into account the individual characteristics of each patient. The best success can be achieved in the presence of comprehensive treatment of tumor. The main factors that have to consider the following.
• the location of the tumor
• a type of cancer
• stage of the disease
In the course of treatment can be used alone and several methods.
the Most widely surgical intervention.
in the treatment of cancer of the urethra distinguish the following types:
• Removal of tumors by surgery.
• Use laser surgery
• the Removal of the tumor with electrical current (electro-resection)
• Removal of lymph nodes in the inguinal and iliac areas (with the involvement in the malignant process of the lymph nodes)
• men – partial or complete penectomy (amputation of the penis) followed by plastics
• removal of the bladder and prostate; removal of the bladder and urethra.
Modern methods of surgical interventions aimed at the maximum preservation of organs.
In the complex surgical procedures performed radiotherapy. In patients with recurrent disease – chemotherapy.
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